Tag Archives: Teaching

Topic 0021: High-Impact Educational Practices

High-Impact Educational Practices

A Brief Overview

Excerpt from High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008)

Chart of High-Impact Practices (pdf)

Source Taken from: https://www.aacu.org/leap/hips

High-Impact Educational Practices: A Brief Overview

The following teaching and learning practices have been widely tested and have been shown to be beneficial for college students from many backgrounds. These practices take many different forms, depending on learner characteristics and on institutional priorities and contexts.

On many campuses, assessment of student involvement in active learning practices such as these has made it possible to assess the practices’ contribution to students’ cumulative learning. However, on almost all campuses, utilization of active learning practices is unsystematic, to the detriment of student learning. Presented below are brief descriptions of high-impact practices that educational research suggests increase rates of student retention and student engagement. The rest of this publication will explore in more detail why these types of practices are effective, which students have access to them, and, finally, what effect they might have on different cohorts of students.

First-Year Seminars and Experiences
Many schools now build into the curriculum first-year seminars or other programs that bring small groups of students together with faculty or staff on a regular basis. The highest-quality first-year experiences place a strong emphasis on critical inquiry, frequent writing, information literacy, collaborative learning, and other skills that develop students’ intellectual and practical competencies. First-year seminars can also involve students with cutting-edge questions in scholarship and with faculty members’ own research.

Common Intellectual Experiences
The older idea of a “core” curriculum has evolved into a variety of modern forms, such as a set of required common courses or a vertically organized general education program that includes advanced integrative studies and/or required participation in a learning community. These programs often combine broad themes—e.g., technology and society, global interdependence—with a variety of curricular and cocurricular options for students.

Learning Communities
The key goals for learning communities are to encourage integration of learning across courses and to involve students with “big questions” that matter beyond the classroom. Students take two or more linked courses as a group and work closely with one another and with their professors. Many learning communities explore a common topic and/or common readings through the lenses of different disciplines. Some deliberately link “liberal arts” and “professional courses”; others feature service learning.

Writing-Intensive Courses
These courses emphasize writing at all levels of instruction and across the curriculum, including final-year projects. Students are encouraged to produce and revise various forms of writing for different audiences in different disciplines. The effectiveness of this repeated practice “across the curriculum” has led to parallel efforts in such areas as quantitative reasoning, oral communication, information literacy, and, on some campuses, ethical inquiry.

Collaborative Assignments and Projects
Collaborative learning combines two key goals: learning to work and solve problems in the company of others, and sharpening one’s own understanding by listening seriously to the insights of others, especially those with different backgrounds and life experiences. Approaches range from study groups within a course, to team-based assignments and writing, to cooperative projects and research.

Undergraduate Research
Many colleges and universities are now providing research experiences for students in all disciplines. Undergraduate research, however, has been most prominently used in science disciplines. With strong support from the National Science Foundation and the research community, scientists are reshaping their courses to connect key concepts and questions with students’ early and active involvement in systematic investigation and research. The goal is to involve students with actively contested questions, empirical observation, cutting-edge technologies, and the sense of excitement that comes from working to answer important questions.

Diversity/Global Learning
Many colleges and universities now emphasize courses and programs that help students explore cultures, life experiences, and worldviews different from their own. These studies—which may address U.S. diversity, world cultures, or both—often explore “difficult differences” such as racial, ethnic, and gender inequality, or continuing struggles around the globe for human rights, freedom, and power. Frequently, intercultural studies are augmented by experiential learning in the community and/or by study abroad.

Service Learning, Community-Based Learning
In these programs, field-based “experiential learning” with community partners is an instructional strategy—and often a required part of the course. The idea is to give students direct experience with issues they are studying in the curriculum and with ongoing efforts to analyze and solve problems in the community. A key element in these programs is the opportunity students have to both apply what they are learning in real-world settings and reflect in a classroom setting on their service experiences. These programs model the idea that giving something back to the community is an important college outcome, and that working with community partners is good preparation for citizenship, work, and life.

Internships are another increasingly common form of experiential learning. The idea is to provide students with direct experience in a work setting—usually related to their career interests—and to give them the benefit of supervision and coaching from professionals in the field. If the internship is taken for course credit, students complete a project or paper that is approved by a faculty member.

Capstone Courses and Projects
Whether they’re called “senior capstones” or some other name, these culminating experiences require students nearing the end of their college years to create a project of some sort that integrates and applies what they’ve learned. The project might be a research paper, a performance, a portfolio of “best work,” or an exhibit of artwork. Capstones are offered both in departmental programs and, increasingly, in general education as well.

Topic 0010: Rethinking Teaching Redesigning Learning

My Supervisor, Prof Dato’ Dr Mohamed Amin Embi as a speaker at University of the Future Seminar Series with title Rethinking Teaching Redesigning Learning. This quite impressed me, how he looks at the future and relevance of current teaching and learning. Now, the  Gen Z is actually in the education system and how us as an educator be relevant to them. I summarize what he said; “we are to worried the change the physical of system but forget the rethink teaching and redesign learning suited with the current generation”.

For a last time we have learn pedagogy and andragogy. But the Gen Z was categorise as Heutagogy. Heutagogy was defined by Hase and Kenyon in 2000 as the study of self-determined learning. Heutagogy applies a holistic approach to developing learner capabilities, with learning as an active and proactive process, and learners serving as “the major agent in their own learning, which occurs as a result of personal experiences” (Hase & Kenyon, 2007, p. 112). As in an andragogical approach, in heutagogy the instructor also facilitates the learning process by providing guidance and resources, but fully relinquishes ownership of the learning path and process to the learner, who negotiates learning and determines what will be learned and how it will be learned (Hase & Kenyon, 2000; Eberle, 2009).

Duration 2:22:29 minutes

Source : Kementerian Pendidikan Tinggi KPT/MOHE


Table of Comparison Pedagogy, Andragogy and Heutagogy


Pedagogy (Children Learning)

Andragogy (Adult Learning)

Heutagogy (Self-determined learning)


The learner is a dependent personality. Teacher determines what, how and when anything is learned.

Adult are independent. They strive for autonomy and self-direction in learning.

Learners are interdependent. They idetified the potential to learn form novel experiences as a matter of course. They are able to manage their own learning.

Resource for Learning The learner has few resources – the teacher devises transmission techniques to store knowledge in the learner’s head. Adult use their own and other’s experience. Teacher provide some resources but the learner decides the path by negotiating the learning.
Reason for Learning Learn in order to advance to the next stage. Adult learn when they experience a need to know or to perform more effectively. Learning is not necessarily planned or linear. Learning is not neccesarily nased on need but on the identification of the potential to learn in novel situation.
Focus of Learning Learning is subject centred, focussed on prescribed curriculum and planned. Adult learning is task or problem centered. Learner can go beyond problem solving by enabling pro-activity. Learners use their own and others’ experiences and internal processes such as reflection, environmental scanning, experience, interaction with others and pro-active as well as problem-solving behaviours.

Motivation comes from external sources – usually parents, teachers and sense of competition.

Motivation stems from internal sources – the increased self-estem, confidence and recognition that come form successful performance.

Self-efficacy, knowing how to learn, creativity, ability to use these qualities in novel as well as familiar situations and working with others.

Role of the Teacher

Design the learning process, imposes material, is assumed to know the best

Enabler or facilitator, climate of collaboration, respect and openness

Develop the learner’s capability.

  • Learn interdependent
  • Problem-solver
  • Self-efficacy
  • Competence


  1. Hase, S. (2009). Heutagogy and e-learning in the workplace: Some challenges and opportunities. Impact: Journal of Applied Research in Workplace E-learning, 1(1), 43-52. DOI: 10.5043/impact.13
  2. Hase, S. & Kenyon, C. (2007). Heutagogy: A child of complexity theory. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education, 4(1), 111-119.
  3. Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From andragogy to heutagogy. In UltiBase Articles. Retrieved from http://ultibase.rmit.edu.au/Articles/dec00/hase2.htm