Topic 0022: Anderson and Krathwohl – Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

Understanding the New Version of Bloom’s Taxonomy

A succinct discussion of the revisions to Bloom’s classic cognitive taxonomy by Anderson and Krathwohl and how to use them effectively

Source taken from:


Who are Anderson and Krathwohl? These gentlemen are the primary authors of the revisions to what had become known as Bloom’s Taxonomy — an ordering of cognitive skills.  (A taxonomy is really just a word for a form of classification.) This taxonomy had permeated teaching  and instructional planning for almost 50 years before it was revised in 2001. And although these crucial revisions were published in 2001, surprisingly there are still educators who have never heard of Anderson and Krathwohl or their important work in relation to Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy. Both of these primary authors were in a perfect position to orchestrate looking at the classic taxonomy critically. They called together a group of educational psychologists and educators to help them with the revisions. Lorin Anderson was once a student of the famed Benjamin Bloom, and David Krathwohl was one of Bloom’s partners as he devised his classic cognitive taxonomy.

Here in the United States, from the late 1950s into the early 1970s, there were attempts to dissect and classify the varied domains of human learning – cognitive (knowing, or head), affective (emotions, feelings, or heart) and psychomotor (doing, or kinesthetic, tactile, haptic or hand/body). The resulting efforts yielded a series of taxonomies for each area.  The aforementioned taxonomies deal with the varied aspects of human learning and were arranged hierarchically, proceeding from the simplest functions to those that are more complex. Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy had been a staple in teacher training and professional preparation for almost 40 years before Anderson and Krathwohl instituted an updated version. An overview of those changes appear below.

While all of the taxonomies above have been defined and used for many years, there came about at the beginning of the 21st century in a new version of the cognitive taxonomy, known commonly before as Bloom’s Taxonomy. You can also search the Web for varied references on the other two taxonomies — affective or psychomotor. There are many valuable discussions on the development of all the of the hierarchies, as well as examples of their usefulness and applications in teaching. However, it is important to note that in a number of these discussions, some web authors have mislabeled the affective and psychomotor domains as extensions of Bloom’s work. These authors are in grave error. The original cognitive domain was described and published in 1956. While David Krathwohl was one of the original authors on this taxonomy the work was named after the senior or first author Benjamin Bloom. The affective domain was not categorized until 1964 and as David Krathwohl was the lead author on this endeavor, it should bear his name, not Bloom’s. Bloom had nothing to do with the psychomotor domain and it was not described or named until the first part of the 1970s. There are 3 versions of this taxonomy by 3 different authors — Harrow (1972); Simpson (1972); and Dave (1970) See full citations below.

The Cognitive Domain:

The following chart includes the two primary existing taxonomies of cognition. Please note in the table below, the one on the left, entitled Bloom’s, is based on the original work of Benjamin Bloom and others as they attempted in 1956 to define the functions of thought, coming to know, or cognition. This taxonomy is almost 60 years old. The taxonomy on the right is the more recent adaptation and is the redefined work of Bloom in 2000-01. That one is labeled Anderson and Krathwohl.  The group redefining Bloom’s original concepts, worked from 1995-2000. As indicated above, this group was assembled by Lorin Anderson and David Krathwohl and included people with expertise in the areas of cognitive psychology, curriculum and instruction, and educational testing, measurement, and assessment. The new adaptation also took into consideration many of Bloom’s own concerns and criticisms of his original taxonomy.

As you will see the primary differences are not in the listings or rewordings from nouns to verbs, or in the renaming of some of the components, or even in the re-positioning of the last two categories. The major differences lie in the more useful and comprehensive additions of how the taxonomy intersects and acts upon different types and levels of knowledge — factual, conceptual, procedural and metacognitive. This melding can be charted to see how one is teaching at both knowledge and cognitive process levels. Please remember the chart goes from simple to more complex and challenging types of thinking.

Taxonomies of the Cognitive Domain

Bloom’s Taxonomy 1956 Anderson and Krathwohl’s Taxonomy 2001
 1. Knowledge: Remembering or retrieving previously learned material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:

know identify relate list define recall memorize repeat record name recognize acquire
1. Remembering:

Recognizing or recalling knowledge from memory. Remembering is when memory is used to produce or retrieve definitions, facts, or lists, or to recite previously learned information.

 2. Comprehension: The ability to grasp or construct meaning from material. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  

restate locate report recognize explain express identify discuss describe discuss review infer illustrate interpret draw represent differentiate conclude
2. Understanding

Constructing meaning from different types of functions be they written or graphic messages or activities like interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, or explaining.

 3. Application: The ability to use learned material, or to implement material in new and concrete situations. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  

apply relate develop translate use operate organize employ restructure interpret demonstrate illustrate practice calculate show exhibit dramatize
 3. Applying

Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Applying relates to or refers to situations where learned material is used through products like models, presentations, interviews or simulations.  

 4. Analysis: The ability to break down or distinguish the parts of material into its components so that its organizational structure may be better understood. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  

analyze compare probe inquire examine contrast categorize differentiate contrast investigate detect survey classify deduce experiment scrutinize discover inspect dissect discriminate separate
 4. Analyzing

Breaking materials or concepts into parts, determining how the parts relate to one another or how they interrelate, or how the parts relate to an overall structure or purpose. Mental actions included in this function are differentiating, organizing, and attributing, as well as being able to distinguish between the components or parts. When one is analyzing, he/she can illustrate this mental function by creating spreadsheets, surveys, charts, or diagrams, or graphic representations.

 5. Synthesis: The ability to put parts together to form a coherent or unique new whole. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are:  

compose produce design assemble create prepare predict modify tell plan invent formulate collect set up generalize document combine relate propose develop arrange construct organize originate derive write propose
5. Evaluating

Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Critiques, recommendations, and reports are some of the products that can be created to demonstrate the processes of evaluation.  In the newer taxonomy, evaluating comes before creating as it is often a necessary part of the precursory behavior before one creates something.    

 6. Evaluation: The ability to judge, check, and even critique the value of material for a given purpose. Examples of verbs that relate to this function are: 

judge assess compare evaluate conclude measure deduce argue decide choose rate select estimate validate consider appraise value criticize infer
6. Creating:

Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Creating requires users to put parts together in a new way, or synthesize parts into something new and different creating a new form or product.  This process is the most difficult mental function in the new taxonomy. 

Table 1.1 – Bloom vs. Anderson/Krathwohl


changes from ppt(Diagram 1.1, Wilson, Leslie O. 2001)

Note: Bloom’s  taxonomy revised – the author critically examines his own work – After creating the cognitive taxonomy one of the weaknesses noted by Bloom himself was that there is was a fundamental difference between his “knowledge” category and the other 5 levels of his model as those levels dealt with intellectual abilities and skills in relation to interactions with types of knowledge. Bloom was very aware that there was an acute difference between knowledge and the mental and intellectual operations performed on, or with, that knowledge. He identified specific types of knowledge as:

  • Terminology
  • Specific facts
  • Conventions
  • Trends and sequences
  • Classifications and categories
  • Criteria
  • Methodology
  • Principles and generalizations
  • Theories and structures

Levels of Knowledge – The first three of these levels were identified in the original work, but rarely discussed or introduced when initially discussing uses for the taxonomy. Metacognition was added in the revised version.

  • Factual Knowledge – The basic elements students must know to be acquainted with a discipline or solve problems.
  • Conceptual Knowledge – The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together.
  • Procedural Knowledge – How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods.
  • Metacognitive Knowledge – Knowledge of cognition in general, as well as awareness and knowledge of one’s own cognition.  (29)

(Summarized from: Anderson, L. W. & Krathwohl, D.R., et al (2001) A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives. New York: Longman.)

One of the things that clearly differentiates the new model from that of the 1956 original is that it lays out components nicely so they can be considered and used. Cognitive processes, as related to chosen instructional tasks, can be easily documented and tracked. This feature has the potential to make teacher assessment, teacher self-assessment, and student assessment easier or clearer as usage patterns emerge. (See PDF link below for a sample.)

As stated before, perhaps surprisingly, these levels of knowledge were indicated in Bloom’s original work – factual, conceptual, and procedural – but these were never fully understood or used by teachers because most of what educators were given in training consisted of a simple chart with the listing of levels and related accompanying verbs. The full breadth of Handbook I, and its recommendations on types of knowledge, were rarely discussed in any instructive or useful way. Another rather gross lapse in common teacher training over the past 50+ years is teachers-in-training are rarely made aware of any of the criticisms leveled against Bloom’s original model.

Please note that in the updated version the term “metacognitive” has been added to the array of knowledge types. For readers not familiar with this term, it means thinking about ones thinking in a purposeful way so that one knows about cognition and also knows how to regulate one’s cognition.

bloom knowledge chartKnowledge Dimensions Defined:

Factual Knowledge is knowledge that is basic to specific disciplines. This dimension refers to essential facts, terminology, details or elements students must know or be familiar with in order to understand a discipline or solve a problem in it.

Conceptual Knowledge is knowledge of classifications, principles, generalizations, theories, models, or structures pertinent to a particular disciplinary area.

Procedural Knowledge refers to information or knowledge that helps students to do something specific to a discipline, subject, or area of study. It also refers to methods of inquiry, very specific or finite skills, algorithms, techniques, and particular methodologies.

Metacognitive Knowledge is the awareness of one’s own cognition and particular cognitive processes. It is strategic or reflective knowledge about how to go about solving problems, cognitive tasks, to include contextual and conditional knowledge and knowledge of self.

*A comprehensive example from the book is provided with publisher permission at


Anderson, L. W. and Krathwohl, D. R., et al (Eds..) (2001) A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Allyn & Bacon. Boston, MA (Pearson Education Group) **There is a newer (2013), abridged, less expensive version of this work.

Bloom, B.S. and Krathwohl, D. R. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I: Cognitive Domain. NY, NY: Longmans, Green

Krathwohl, D. R. (2002) A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy. (PDF) in Theory into Practice. V 41. #4. Autumn, 2002. Ohio State University. Retrieved @

The Anderson/Krathwohl text has numerous examples of how these concepts can be used for K-12 teachers. Since I have used this material in my teaching (a special topics graduate course on taxonomies and their uses entitled Beyond Bloom’s,) and have also presented on this topic in several national conferences, I have artifacts and examples of how these revisions can be used effectively in college teaching. While I have a link above to an artifact, to be fully understood you might need to view the original assignment and the supportive documents. I would be happy to provide those and discuss them more fully.  I am always happy to share information with other educators.

Originally published in ED 721 (2001) course handbook, and at: (2001, 2005), revised 2013 

Topic 0021: High-Impact Educational Practices

High-Impact Educational Practices

A Brief Overview

Excerpt from High-Impact Educational Practices: What They Are, Who Has Access to Them, and Why They Matter, by George D. Kuh (AAC&U, 2008)

Chart of High-Impact Practices (pdf)

Source Taken from:

High-Impact Educational Practices: A Brief Overview

The following teaching and learning practices have been widely tested and have been shown to be beneficial for college students from many backgrounds. These practices take many different forms, depending on learner characteristics and on institutional priorities and contexts.

On many campuses, assessment of student involvement in active learning practices such as these has made it possible to assess the practices’ contribution to students’ cumulative learning. However, on almost all campuses, utilization of active learning practices is unsystematic, to the detriment of student learning. Presented below are brief descriptions of high-impact practices that educational research suggests increase rates of student retention and student engagement. The rest of this publication will explore in more detail why these types of practices are effective, which students have access to them, and, finally, what effect they might have on different cohorts of students.

First-Year Seminars and Experiences
Many schools now build into the curriculum first-year seminars or other programs that bring small groups of students together with faculty or staff on a regular basis. The highest-quality first-year experiences place a strong emphasis on critical inquiry, frequent writing, information literacy, collaborative learning, and other skills that develop students’ intellectual and practical competencies. First-year seminars can also involve students with cutting-edge questions in scholarship and with faculty members’ own research.

Common Intellectual Experiences
The older idea of a “core” curriculum has evolved into a variety of modern forms, such as a set of required common courses or a vertically organized general education program that includes advanced integrative studies and/or required participation in a learning community. These programs often combine broad themes—e.g., technology and society, global interdependence—with a variety of curricular and cocurricular options for students.

Learning Communities
The key goals for learning communities are to encourage integration of learning across courses and to involve students with “big questions” that matter beyond the classroom. Students take two or more linked courses as a group and work closely with one another and with their professors. Many learning communities explore a common topic and/or common readings through the lenses of different disciplines. Some deliberately link “liberal arts” and “professional courses”; others feature service learning.

Writing-Intensive Courses
These courses emphasize writing at all levels of instruction and across the curriculum, including final-year projects. Students are encouraged to produce and revise various forms of writing for different audiences in different disciplines. The effectiveness of this repeated practice “across the curriculum” has led to parallel efforts in such areas as quantitative reasoning, oral communication, information literacy, and, on some campuses, ethical inquiry.

Collaborative Assignments and Projects
Collaborative learning combines two key goals: learning to work and solve problems in the company of others, and sharpening one’s own understanding by listening seriously to the insights of others, especially those with different backgrounds and life experiences. Approaches range from study groups within a course, to team-based assignments and writing, to cooperative projects and research.

Undergraduate Research
Many colleges and universities are now providing research experiences for students in all disciplines. Undergraduate research, however, has been most prominently used in science disciplines. With strong support from the National Science Foundation and the research community, scientists are reshaping their courses to connect key concepts and questions with students’ early and active involvement in systematic investigation and research. The goal is to involve students with actively contested questions, empirical observation, cutting-edge technologies, and the sense of excitement that comes from working to answer important questions.

Diversity/Global Learning
Many colleges and universities now emphasize courses and programs that help students explore cultures, life experiences, and worldviews different from their own. These studies—which may address U.S. diversity, world cultures, or both—often explore “difficult differences” such as racial, ethnic, and gender inequality, or continuing struggles around the globe for human rights, freedom, and power. Frequently, intercultural studies are augmented by experiential learning in the community and/or by study abroad.

Service Learning, Community-Based Learning
In these programs, field-based “experiential learning” with community partners is an instructional strategy—and often a required part of the course. The idea is to give students direct experience with issues they are studying in the curriculum and with ongoing efforts to analyze and solve problems in the community. A key element in these programs is the opportunity students have to both apply what they are learning in real-world settings and reflect in a classroom setting on their service experiences. These programs model the idea that giving something back to the community is an important college outcome, and that working with community partners is good preparation for citizenship, work, and life.

Internships are another increasingly common form of experiential learning. The idea is to provide students with direct experience in a work setting—usually related to their career interests—and to give them the benefit of supervision and coaching from professionals in the field. If the internship is taken for course credit, students complete a project or paper that is approved by a faculty member.

Capstone Courses and Projects
Whether they’re called “senior capstones” or some other name, these culminating experiences require students nearing the end of their college years to create a project of some sort that integrates and applies what they’ve learned. The project might be a research paper, a performance, a portfolio of “best work,” or an exhibit of artwork. Capstones are offered both in departmental programs and, increasingly, in general education as well.

Topic 0020: Assessment vs Evaluation

What is the difference between “assessment” and “evaluation?”

Assessment is the process of objectively understanding the state or condition of a thing, by observation and measurement. Assessment of teaching means taking a measure of its effectiveness. “Formative” assessment is measurement for the purpose of improving it. “Summative” assessment is what we normally call “evaluation.”

Evaluation is the process of observing and measuring a thing for the purpose of judging it and of determining its “value,” either by comparison to similar things, or to a standard. Evaluation of teaching means passing judgment on it as part of an administrative process.

Ideally, a fair and comprehensive plan to evaluate teaching would incorporate many data points drawn from a broad array of teaching dimensions. Such a plan would include not only student surveys, but also self-assessments, documentation of instructional planning and design, evidence of scholarly activity to improve teaching, and most importantly, evidence of student learning outcomes.




TOPIC 0019: Writing Your Literature Review

What is the literature review?

  1. A literature review summarises, critically analyses and evaluates previous research available on the subject, presenting this in an organised way. It should address a clearly articulated question or series of questions
  2. It is NOT:
    • A descriptive list or summaries of books/articles etc
    • An exhaustive bibliography on everything ever written on the topic- you need to make a decision about what to include
    • Your arguments and ideas (like an essay)

Why do we write a literature review?

  • Demonstrate an in-depth understanding of your topic area including key concepts, terminology, theories and definitions
  • Identify who the major thinkers are
  • Identify what research has been done in that area
  • Find gaps in the research or current areas of interest to help you formulate your own research question
  • Identify the main research methodologies in your subject area
  • Identify main areas of agreement or controversy
  • convince the reader that your research questions are significant, important and interesting
  • convince the reader that your thesis will make an original contribution to the area being investigated.

Steps to complete the literature review

  1. Find relevant literature on your topic and follow trails of references
  2. Identify themes/ideas/theories/approaches to the topic that have emerged from reading
  3. Introduce ideas by themes/theory/approach/chronologically or any other appropriate structure but do not just list different authors’ viewpoints
  4. Introduce and explain each theme (or theory/approach), present evidence from readings (agreements/ disagreements), critically commentate and relate to your own research

Critical Questioning

  1. Who is the author?
  2. What is the authors central point or main argument?
  3. What findings and conclusions are made?
  4. What evidence is used to support the conclusions?
  5. Is the evidence relevant? What methodology has the author used? What are the strengths and limitations?
  6. Does the author make any assumptions?
  7. What is not being said?
  8. Is there any explicit or hidden bias?
  9. How is the text relevant to YOUR project or assignment?
  10. How does this link with other texts that you have read?

(SYTHESIZING INFORMATION REFER TO; Topic 0007: Matrix Method for Literature Review – Approaches to Identify Research Gaps and Generate RQ)

Figure 1 Structuring Literature Review

Topic  (broad to narrow)

Research Title: The Design and Developement of E-Portfolio for HIE’S in Social Sciences and Humanities

  • 2.1 Chapter Overview
  • 2.2 E-Learning in Malaysia
  • 2.3 E-Portfolio in HIE’s
  • 2.4 E-Portfolio Definition and Purpose
  • 2.5 E-Portfolio Reflective Learning Strategies
    • 2.5.1 Critical Thinking
    • 2.5.2 Problem-Solving
    • 2.5.3 Analytical Skills
  • 2.6 Conclusion and Gaps for Further Study

Critical Writing in a Literature Review

  1. Comparing and contrasting different theories, concepts etc and indicating the position you are taking for your own work
  2. Showing how limitations in others work creates a research gap for you.
  3. Strategic and selective referencing to support the underpinning arguments which form the basis of your research
  4. Synthesising and reformulating arguments from various sources to create new/more developed point of view
  5. .Agreeing with/defending a point of view or finding
  6. Accepting current viewpoints have some strengths but qualifying your position by highlighting weaknesses
  7. Rejecting a point of view with reasons (e.g. Lack of evidence)
  8. Making connections between sources

Adapted from RIDLEY, D 2008. The literature review: a step-by- step guide for students.  London: Sage

Konvensyen Nasional Penyatuan Bangsa 2016 anjuran Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam.

Titah Duli Yang Maha Mulia Paduka Seri Sultan Perak Darul Ridzuan, Sultan Nazrin Muizzuddin Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Azlan Muhibbuddin Shah Al-Maghfur-Lah di Konvensyen Nasional Penyatuan Bangsa 2016 anjuran Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam.

Tarikh: 8 November 2016

“Menyingkap perjuangan bangsa: UiTM, antara harapan dan pencapaian”

Konvensyen Nasional Penyatuan Bangsa, dianjurkan sempena sambutan enam puluh tahun penubuhan UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA (UiTM).  UiTM, ialah sebuah institusi pendidikan negara yang ditubuhkan khusus, untuk membangunkan modal insan Melayu dan bumiputera di negara ini.

MESTI BACA: Melayu perlu jadi kaum yang kurang meminta – Sultan Nazrin 

2. UiTM telah melalui pelbagai tahap pembangunan bermula dengan pembentangan ‘Paper No.10/1951’, oleh Dato’ Onn bin Jaafar (Allahyarham) di dalam Federal Legislative Council untuk menubuhkan RURAL AND INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY, lebih dikenali dengan ringkasan nama RIDA.   RIDA ditubuhkan pada bulan Ogos 1951, dengan tujuan, antara lainnya, untuk mempertingkat status sosioekonomi dan kesejahteraan umum orang Melayu. Seksyen 5 kertas yang dibentangkan secara jelas menetapkan objektif penubuhan RIDA:

“In order to be able to utilize the resources of government and to stimulate the interest and obtain the support of the people in the kampongs, it is essential that every effort be made to bring the people closer to the government, and train them to bring their needs before the government through a systematic channel, initiating from the kampongs and moving progressively to RIDA as the appropriate instrument set up for the purpose.”

3. Orang kampung yang dimaksudkan, merujuk kepada masyarakat desa yang terdiri daripada orang Melayu.  Semasa Tanah Melayu berada di bawah naungan pemerintahan Inggeris, orang Melayu, telah dinafikan banyak perkara di tanah airnya sendiri, terutama, di bidang-bidang perniagaan, perdagangan, usahawan, pekerjaan dan pelajaran.  Ungkapan-ungkapan ‘dagang lalu ditanakkan, kera di hutan disusukan, anak di riba mati tak makan’, ‘ayam di kepuk kelaparan – itik di air kehausan’, ‘sepuluh jong masuk – anjing tetap bercawat ekor’, memberikan gambaran, rintihan pedih, penderitaan yang dialami oleh majoriti anak bangsa ketika itu, menghadapi nasib disisihkan daripada arus pembangunan.  Bangsa melihat kemakmuran buminya diteroka, hasil mahsul buminya dikaut, melimpahkan rahmat kepada orang lain, sementara peribumi merintih sendiri.

4. Menyediakan peluang latihan dalam bidang-bidang profesional, adalah salah satu kaedah yang dikenal pasti, dapat membantu meningkat tahap kemajuan orang Melayu.  Dewan Latihan RIDA ditubuhkan pada November 1956, dan dirasmikan pada 14 Februari 1957, oleh Menteri Perdagangan dan Industri, Tun Dr. Ismail bin Dato’ Abdul Rahman (Allahyarham).  Dua puluh lima (25) pelajar pengambilan pertama telah mengikuti kursus persediaan London Chamber of Commerce, stenography, secretaryship dan accountancy.  Kursus-kursus untuk peniaga-peniaga kecil, turut dianjurkan.  Konvokesyen pertama pada tahun 1962, menyaksikan lima puluh graduan menerima sijil daripada Timbalan Perdana Menteri, Tun Haji Abdul Razak Dato’ Hussein (Allahyarham).

5. Dua peristiwa pada tahun 1965, telah mempengaruhi arah haluan program pendidikan dan latihan di negara ini, terutama agenda pendidikan bumiputera.  Peristiwa pertama ialah ‘Kaji Selidik Tenaga Manusia’ yang dilakukan antara Februari hingga Mei 1965.  Kaji Selidik yang dibiayai oleh Kerajaan Malaysia dan dilaksanakan dengan bantuan Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu, bertujuan menaksir keperluan tenaga manusia, ketika negara sedang menggubal Pelan Rancangan Malaysia Pertama (1966-1970).  Kaji selidik tersebut menunjukkan negara, menghadapi kekurangan ketara tenaga profesional, yang memerlukan negara menambahbaik dan menyusun semula program pendidikan.

6. Peristiwa kedua, ialah ‘Kongres Ekonomi Bumiputra Pertama’ yang berlangsung pada 5 hingga 7 Jun 1965.  Antara perkara yang mendapat perhatian utama Kongres ialah pembangunan yang tidak seimbang antara bandar dan desa serta kedudukan sosial dan ekonomi bumiputera.  Kongres Ekonomi Bumiputera telah menghasilkan 68 resolusi.  Dua puluh dua daripada resolusi yang dihasilkan, menyentuh RIDA, mengusulkan supaya dilakukan penilaian semula peranan dan objektif penubuhan RIDA.  Susulan daripada Kongres tersebut, Majlis Amanah Rakyat, atau MARA telah ditubuhkan.  Dewan Latihan RIDA bukan sahaja ditukar namanya kepada Maktab MARA, tetapi turut melibatkan rombakan serta tambahbaikkan kursus-kursus dan kurikulum yang ditawarkan.  Pada 14 Oktober 1967, ketika upacara peletakan batu asas di kampus Shah Alam, Tun Abdul Razak Dato’ Hussein (Allahyarham), mengumumkan, Maktab MARA ditingkatkan ke taraf institut, dikenali dengan nama Institut Teknologi MARA (ITM).

7. Bermulalah kisah kejayaan sebuah institusi pendidikan negara.  Seawal tahun 1973, ITM mula menunjukkan kejayaan menyerlah.  Ketika membahaskan Rang Undang-Undang Majlis Amanah Rakyat (Pindaan) pada 18 Julai 1973, ahli Parlimen Batu, Yang Berhormat Dr. Tan Chee Khoon, seorang ahli Parlimen bukan keturunan Melayu, dan bukan wakil daripada parti pemerintah, telah memberikan pengiktirafan terbuka terhadap pencapaian ITM dengan kata-kata berikut:

“Mr. Speaker Sir, MARA should concentrate on training and in this connection, I wish to congratulate the M.I.T., or the Mara Institute of Technology, on the excellent work it is doing.  In the words of the Deputy Prime Minister, MARA has a sacred mission to carry out and it is undertaking this task with great success.

The M.I.T. or I.T.M., shows what a dedicated Malay can do for the Bumiputras and this afternoon, I wish to congratulate Dr. Arshad bin Ayub on the excellent work he is doing for M.I.T.  His sterling work for the M.I.T. and the nation has been recognised by the Ohio University which has recently conferred on him the Honorary LL.D.  Malaysia can be justifiably proud of Dr. Arshad bin Ayub, but literally he is a prophet without honour in his own country.”

Tan Sri Dr. Arshad bin Ayub, kini hampir mencecah usia lapan puluh lapan tahun.  Beliau ada bersama kita di Dewan ini. Yang Berbahagia Tan Sri Arshad, rakan-rakan seangkatan, juga rakan-rakan sebelum dan selepas beliau, berjasa besar kepada bangsa dan negara, dan akan terpahat di dalam sejarah.
Semoga ALLAH Subhanahu Wata’ala melimpahkan setiap mereka sebaik-baik ganjaran baik di dunia begitu juga di akhirat.

8. Semasa berlangsungnya, acara pengisytiharan kemerdekaan pada 31 Ogos 1957, Syeikh Ahmad bin Muhammad Said Al-Linggi, telah dipilih memimpin bacaan doa; doa yang dirujuk sebagai ‘Doa Hari Kemerdekaan’.  Syeikh Ahmad, telah memohon enam perkara daripada ALLAH Subhanahu Wata’ala.  Tiga daripada enam perkara tersebut, khusus menyentuh orang Melayu dan hak keistimewaan umat:


“YA ALLAH! Anugerahkanlah taufiq kepada sekalian pentadbir awam, jemaah menteri, para sultan dan raja, serta pemimpin negara bagi memelihara kehendak-kehendak agama, memelihara hak keistimewaan umatnya, menegakkan keadilan dalam undang-undang dan berpegang kepada keindahan Islam.”


“YA ALLAH! Jadikanlah mereka agen perubah hal keadaan orang-orang Melayu, agar bangsa ini meningkat maju dan ke hadapan sehingga tercapai cita-cita yang di idam-idamkan.”


“YA ALLAH! Bantulah bangsa Melayu, bimbinglah serta jadikanlah kami menjadi sebaik-baik manusia.  Tunjukkanlah kami jalan yang lurus, jalan yang telah Engkau kurniakan kepada umat Islam yang telah menikmatinya, bukan sebagaimana orang yang Engkau murkai dan bukan juga orang yang sesat.”

9. Tiga permintaan yang diangkat supaya dimakbulkan oleh ALLAH Subhanahu Wata’ala itu, adalah seiring dengan salah satu daripada tujuh wasiat Raja-Raja Melayu yang menegaskan:

“Kami amanahkan dan kami pertanggungjawabkan kepada Raja-Raja Melayu untuk melindungi KEDUDUKAN ISTIMEWA ORANG MELAYU dan KEPENTINGAN SAH KAUM-KAUM LAIN.”

10. Tiga konstituen utama, terlibat dalam merangka Perlembagaan Negara: Raja-Raja, Kerajaan Inggeris dan Parti Perikatan; menangani subjek-subjek sensitif, rumit lagi pelbagai, antaranya isu-isu agama, kaum, bahasa dan negeri; di samping merangka institusi-institusi utama negara, perundangan, kehakiman dan eksekutif, yang perlu mengambil tanggung jawab melayarkan sebuah bahtera merdeka.  Mengolah formula penyatuan dalam kepelbagaian, memerlukan kefahaman tentang fakta dan salasilah sejarah, memerlukan kesediaan berundur sebelum mara, memerlukan keberanian menerima realiti, memerlukan ketegasan mempertahankan prinsip.

11. Oleh itu amatlah bertepatan untuk diimbau kembali peristiwa bersejarah, bertarikh 10 Julai 1957, ketika Yang Teramat Mulia Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra (Almarhum), atas nama Ketua Menteri, membentangkan usul, penggubalan Perlembagaan, di Majlis Perundangan Persekutuan.  Beta memilih memetik bahagian tertentu daripada ucapan tersebut, dalam bahasa yang diucapkan, agar semangat dan intonasinya dapat diberikan apresiasi sewajarnya:

“At varying periods of our country’s history, the Sultans of the Malay States entered into treaties with Great Britain.  The Treaties provided, on the one hand, certain rights and concessions for Great Britain in return for protection to be accorded to Their Highnesses and protection for the interests and rights of the Malays.  This protection was entered in the various State Constitutions and Enactments and in the Federation of Malaya Agreement of 1948.  The position which the Malays enjoyed under this Treaty has never been contested by any person or class of persons or communities for it has not interfered or obstructed other communities in the enjoyment of their possessions or the right to live their lives.  The affluence of others has not helped the Malays but on the other hand it has caused them so much economic setback that they were driven out of the main towns and villages of this country.  The sum total of the Malay plight was that they have suffered in the field of economy as well as education….”

12. Yang Teramat Mulia Tunku, memperingatkan fakta sejarah dengan menyatakan:

“Everybody seems to have forgotten that there is a clause in the Federation of Malaya Agreement which gives to the High Commissioner the special responsibility of safeguarding the special position of the Malays and the legitimate interests of other communities; corresponding power is given to the Sultans of old Unfederated Malay States.

The facts are that unless the Malays are protected there will be no place for them in Malaya.  This is proved to be so in Singapore and Penang.  Again to those who are nervous about their future, I would say – study closely Article 153 of the Federal Constitution.  They will find that the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is also required to safeguard their legitimate interests.”

13. Tan Siew Sin semasa perbahasan telah menyuarakan pendirian berikut:

“The Constitution has accepted the principle of equality of opportunity for all who regard this country as their real home and the object of their undivided loyalty.  It has however also continued to provide for what has been called the special position of the Malays.  Some Chinese quarters regard this as a contradiction of the main principle and hence unjust.  I beg to differ from them.  In the first place, the principle of the special position of the Malays has already been embodied in the Federation of Malaya Agreement.  The Malays therefore cannot be expected to give up what they already have in the same way that they do not expect the other communities to give up their existing rights.  Far more important, however, is the indisputable fact that as a race the Malays are economically backward and well behind the other races …

The main object of this provision is to ensure that the Malays do not lose the little they already have, and if possible be given a reasonable handicap to enable them to catch up with the other races.

An economically depressed Malay community in a prosperous Malaya will not mean a peaceful Malaya.  An economically depressed Malay community will never be able to achieve the desired degree of cooperation with the substantially more prosperous non Malay communities.

It has also been asked why it has not been explicitly stated that this provision is only temporary.  I would remind our critics that the Malays are a proud and sensitive race.  They are also an intelligent race, and I know that they appreciate the significance and implications of this provision far better than most people realise.”

14. V.T. Sambanthan antara lain telah memperingatkan:

“We hear it spoken Sir, of first-class citizen one who is badly provided with roads, has a leaky roof over his head, cannot even get a doctor on a rainy day even if his child is badly ill?  Is that person, be he in the kampung or estate or new village, the first-class citizen or is it he who has a bungalow in the Federal Capital, one, possibly in the Cameron Highlands and a couple more at a seaside resort who is a first-class citizen, I ask.

The basic issue is that we are trying to correct differences in the community.  An imbalance exists, and it exists for various reasons …

.. The special position of the Malays will only touch the fringe of the Malays,  These basic improvements not only of the Malays but of the Chinese, Indians, will come from the economic programmes of the new Government …

We have got to be careful; we have got to remember that a cry, if it is wrongly made, will be followed by a counter-cry, that suspicion begets suspicion, and trust begets trust. This is a country of various communities brought together by political, social and economic reasons.

Let us live as brothers. The traditions of Malaya are the highest traditions … the traditions of brotherhood, of happy and peaceful living amongst each other.”

15. Perkara 153 Perlembagaan Persekutuan, memberikan tanggungjawab kepada Yang di-Pertuan Agong memelihara kedudukan istimewa orang Melayu dan bumiputera di Sabah dan Sarawak, dan kepentingan sah kaum-kaum lain; antara tanggungjawab tersebut untuk menentukan perizaban bagi orang Melayu dan bumiputera satu kadar yang difikirkan patut oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong mengenai jawatan dalam perkhidmatan awam, mengenai biasiswa, bantuan dan keistimewaan-keistimewaan pelajaran atau latihan, atau kemudahan khas yang diberi atau diadakan oleh Kerajaan Persekutuan dan satu kadar yang difikirkan patut oleh Yang di-Pertuan Agong mengenai permit atau lesen bagi menjalankan apa-apa tred atau perniagaan.  

16. Penubuhan UiTM, adalah satu tanggungjawab, yang telah dilaksanakan oleh Kerajaan Persekutuan, dalam semangat menjunjung salah satu daripada tujuh titah wasiat Raja-Raja Melayu.   Langkah demi langkah dirintis untuk menubuhkan UiTM, tapak demi tapak UiTM mendaki tangga kejayaan.  Setiap pencapaian, membuktikan, ALLAH Subhanahu Wata’ala telah memakbulkan ‘Doa Merdeka’, doa yang dipimpin bacaannya oleh Syeikh Ahmad bin Muhammad Said Al-Linggi, serta diaminkan oleh para jemaah, pada pagi 31 Ogos 1957.

17. Rang Undang-Undang Institut Teknologi MARA (ITM), dibentangkan di Parlimen oleh Timbalan Perdana Menteri, merangkap Menteri Pelajaran, Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad, pada 13 April 1976.  Sepuluh ahli Parlimen mengambil bahagian dalam perbahasan, lapan dari Semenanjung dan dua dari Sarawak.  Lima daripada ahli-ahli Parlimen tersebut, meminta ITM menubuhkan cawangan di negeri-negeri.  Tiga daripada pembahas usul, ahli Parlimen Kepong, Yang Berhormat Dr. Tan Chee Khoon, ahli Parlimen Kota Melaka, Yang Berhormat Lim Kit Siang, dan ahli Parlimen Padang Serai, Yang Berhormat Lim Kiam Hoon, dengan hujah, mahu memupuk perpaduan kaum, mencadangkan supaya pintu ITM turut dibuka kepada semua warganegara.  Cadangan tersebut dibidas oleh ahli Parlimen Balik Pulau, Yang Berhormat Shamsuri Md. Salleh dengan hujah:

“Tuan Yang di Pertua, peruntukan yang diberi kepada Institut Teknologi MARA oleh Kerajaan itu kalau dinilai dengan emas, maka emas itu hanya sesaga, kalau dinilai dengan tanah, maka tanah itu tidak lebih hanya sebesar kelangkang kera.  Emas sesaga, tanah yang sebesar kelangkang kera itulah yang diungkit-ungkit, disebut-sebut, ditagih oleh pihak Pembangkang untuk dikongsi dengan orang-orang bukan bumiputera, atas alasan hendak mewujudkan perpaduan negara, hendak membasmi kemiskinan, dengan tidak kira kaum.” 

18. Yang Amat Berhormat Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad, semasa menggulung perbahasan telah menolak cadangan untuk membuka pintu ITM kepada semua warganegara, dengan hujah bahawa perpaduan tidak wajar hanya di desak untuk dilaksanakan di ITM, sedangkan ahli-ahli Yang Berhormat dari Kepong dan Kota Melaka, seringkali menuntut diperbanyakkan lagi penubuhan sekolah-sekolah aliran Mandarin dan Tamil.  Dr. Mahathir menyeru agar mereka yang bersungguh mahu merealisasikan agenda perpaduan nasional untuk membuktikannya dengan menghantar anak-anak ke Sekolah Kebangsaan.  Sebagai seorang yang berlatar belakang doktor perubatan, beliau turut mengukuhkan hujah, tidak akan membuka pintu ITM kepada bukan bumiputera, dengan mengambil contoh perbandingan kes perubatan arterio-venous shunt, satu analogi, hubungan saluran di antara arteri dengan vena.  Dua puluh tiga tahun selepas itu, ketika berjawatan Perdana Menteri, Dr. Mahathir bin Mohammad mengisytiharkan ITM bertaraf universiti, pada 26 Ogos 1999. 

19. UiTM telah berjaya memenuhi visi dan misi untuk membangunkan sumber manusia Melayu.  Kejayaan yang dicapai, telah menjadi sumber inspirasi untuk mencipta kejayaan lebih gemilang.  Setelah enam puluh tahun penubuhannya, UiTM kini memiliki enrolmen 165 ribu pelajar, disokong dengan kekuatan lima ratus program pengajian akademik yang dikendalikan oleh 24 fakulti serta 4 pusat pengajian.  Di samping kampus induk di Shah Alam, tersebar di serata negara 12 kampus cawangan dan 21 kampus satelit yang tanggungjawabnya didukung oleh 18,188 staf akademik, staf pengurusan dan staf sokongan.  Sehingga November 2016, UiTM telah mencatat rekod menghasilkan 687,176 graduan.

20. UiTM berjaya melatih tenaga mahir – tenaga profesional bumiputera, sekali gus turut memenuhi strategi serampang dua mata Dasar Ekonomi Baru; pertama: untuk membasmi kemiskinan, dengan meningkatkan pendapatan dan menambah peluang pekerjaan untuk semua rakyat Malaysia, tanpa mengira kaum; dan kedua: mempercepatkan proses penyusunan semula masyarakat Malaysia, untuk memperbetulkan ketidakseimbangan ekonomi, supaya dapat mengurang dan seterusnya menghapuskan pengenalan kaum, mengikut fungsi ekonomi. Puluhan ribu graduan yang dihasilkan oleh UiTM telah dapat mengeluarkan keluarga mereka daripada kepompong kemiskinan, dan puluhan ribu yang berada dalam kategori menengah Melayu hari ini, terdiri daripada graduan UiTM.  Peningkatan angka golongan menengah Melayu, setidak-tidaknya membantu, menyediakan orang Melayu dengan satu angkatan baru yang memiliki modal insan dan modal budaya yang lebih tinggi, serta secara tidak langsung dapat mengurangkan kegelisahan bangsa seperti yang diperingatkan oleh Tan Siew Sin dalam ucapannya, “an economically depressed Malay community in a prosperous Malaya will not mean a peaceful Malaya”.

21. Mempertahankan kejayaan dan meneruskan rekod kecemerlangan menghadapi dugaan dan cabaran lebih besar daripada usaha merintih kejayaan dan mencipta kecemerlangan.  Manusia  lazimnya mudah alpa ketika dilambung ombak kejayaan. Ibni Khaldun merumuskan kitaran naik turun tamadun bangsa, melalui lima fasa.  Fasa pertama, generasi yang berjuang untuk membebaskan penindasan tanah air.   Fasa kedua, generasi yang membina dan membangunkan tanah air yang merdeka. Fasa ketiga, generasi yang menikmati hasil pembangunan.  Fasa keempat, generasi yang tidak lagi menghargai pahit jerih perjuangan lalu bersengketa dan teralpa menjaga keutuhan.  Fasa kelima, generasi yang perlu membayar harga tinggi setelah bangsa menjadi lemah, diikuti dengan berlakunya keruntuhan tamadun.

22. Pada fasa manakah bangsa berada ketika ini.  UiTM sebagai gedung yang sarat ilmu dan terhimpunnya para sarjana dan ilmuwan yang arif lagi bijaksana, hendaklah bijak membaca situasi, dan menyatakan hakikat dan realiti, secara jujur – secara ikhlas, secara tepat – secara faktual, agar kalau sudah tersesat di hujung jalan, dapat kembali ke pangkal jalan.  Selamilah kembali harapan dan impian yang disuarakan oleh para pejuang bangsa, dalam fasa pertama dan fasa kedua, generasi yang berjuang untuk mencapai kemerdekaan dan generasi yang berusaha untuk memberi makna kepada kemerdekaan; mereka yang telah mengabadikan jiwa raga, tenaga dan usaha, berkorban masa dan harta benda, semata-mata untuk negara dan bangsa. Dalam ucapannya, ketika meletakkan batu asas kampus ITM, pada 14 Oktober 1967, Tun Abdul Razak (Allahyarham) antara lain menyatakan:

“Tiap-tiap penuntut MARA yang berdiri di hadapan khalayak ramai petang ini, mestilah menyifatkan istiadat meletak batu asas Institut Teknologi MARA sebagai satu ketika, riwayat hidup mereka itu, bagi meletakkan batu asas pendirian mereka itu sendiri, yang teguh lagi bermakna, bersendikan semangat yang cergas lagi dinamis, menyambut dan menjunjung hasrat, amanah rakyat bumiputera pada mereka, supaya mencari ilmu pelajaran, latihan dan kemahiran yang betul-betul akan menukarkan cara dan corak mereka itu berfikir, dan hidup dengan lebih mewah, mulia, kaya dan segar yang benar-benar akan memberi makna pada bangsa dan nusa mereka kelak.

Bangunan batu, kutub khanah berhawa dingin, bilik makmal dan tapak yang lebih lebar ini tidak akan menjadi Maktab atau ITM yang berguna jikalau pandangan penuntut tidak saujana, dan fikiran, kemahuan dan semangat mereka tidak dinamis”. 

23. Tun Abdul Razak menyuarakan ingatan agar setiap penuntut MARA bersemangat cergas lagi dinamis.  Setiap penuntut diingatkan untuk menjunjung amanah rakyat.  Sesungguhnya, mencari ilmu dan mendapatkan kemahiran itu adalah sebahagian daripada amanah bangsa kerana gedung ilmu ini, dibiayai oleh sumber kewangan negara.  Sumber kewangan negara, adalah milik rakyat jelata, diamanahkan untuk ditadbir urus oleh kerajaan yang diberikan mandat kepercayaan oleh rakyat.  Derhakalah pemimpin kepada rakyat dan derhakalah rakyat kepada bangsanya, jika pemimpin dan rakyat melakukan perbuatan pecah amanah.  Akan terungkailah simpul kesetiaan, akan retaklah semangat penyatuan, akan luntur segala penghormatan.

24. Para penuntut yang telah diperkayakan dengan ilmu – para penuntut yang dilengkapkan dengan kemahiran, diharapkan untuk menukar cara dan corak berfikir, memperlihatkan watak insan berilmu.  Pendidikan itu bertujuan untuk menggantikan minda perhambaan yang kosong dengan minda merdeka yang terbuka.  Ahli falsafah keturunan Greek, Epictetus, yang dilahirkan seorang abdi di Hierapolis, menyifatkan hanya orang berilmu, memilik kebebasan minda.  Kebebasan minda boleh diberikan ilustrasi yang baik dengan memetik kisah seorang Mullah.  Diceritakan Mullah Nasaruddin mempunyai jiran, yang berperangai suka meminjam, tetapi tidak memulangkan barang pinjaman.  Pada satu hari, jirannya berhajat meminjam keldai. Mullah Nasaruddin lalu menyorok keldainya di dalam bangsal, mengatakan kepada jirannya, keldai tersebut sudah tidak ada lagi, kerana telah diambil oleh adiknya.  Ketika jiran tersebut melangkah pulang, beliau terdengar ringkikan suara keldai, lalu berpatah balik dan bertanyakan Mullah, betulkah keldai yang dimaksudkan sudah tidak ada.  Mullah itu dengan yakin menjawab, adakah jirannya lebih mempercayai ringkikan suara seekor keldai atau lidah seorang Mullah.  Kerana taasub menghormati status seorang Mullah, jiran tersebut menelan jawapan Mullah Nasaruddin.  Moral daripada cerita ini, merumuskan, minda itu dianggap lebih terbuka dan merdeka, apabila ada kalanya, minda berupaya membezakan antara kebenaran dan penipuan, tanpa mengira daripada suara siapa, samada seorang Mullah ataupun seekor keldai.  Ada kalanya, keldai yang dianggap dungu, lebih jujur, ikhlas dan telus daripada seorang Mullah yang berstatus tinggi.

25. Tun Abdul Razak juga mahu melihat penuntut keluaran MARA dapat hidup lebih mewah, lebih mulia, lebih kaya dan lebih segar tetapi hendaklah memberi makna kepada bangsa dan nusa, dan tidak semata-mata untuk memenuhi nafsu haloba tanpa batasan, hingga matlamat menghalalkan cara.  Hasrat untuk dapat hidup lebih mewah dan lebih kaya hendaklah dirangkaikan dengan nilai dan imej lebih mulia.  Kemewahan dan kekayaan yang diperoleh melalui kaedah yang hina, secara menipu, secara merompak, secara tidak jujur dan secara rasuah, tidak memberikan imej mulia; malah kekayaan sedemikian bukan sahaja meletakkan seseorang berada dalam lembah kehinaan, hilang penghormatan di dunia, malah jika kemungkaran telah dilakukan, pendustaan dan kepalsuan, tidak akan terlindung ketika berhadapan dengan ALLAH Subhanahu Wata’ala, di Mahkamah Rabbuljalil, pada hari kebangkitan di Padang Mahsyar nanti.  Junjungan Besar kita, Nabi Muhammad Sallallahu Alai Wassalam telah mengingatkan yang bermaksud:

“Demi ALLAH! Aku tidak bimbang kefakiran yang menimpa kamu tetapi apa yang aku bimbang ialah apabila dibentangkan dunia, sebagaimana yang telah dibentangkan kepada umat sebelum kamu, lalu mereka merebut kemewahan dunia itu, maka kamu juga akan berebut, sebagaimana mereka, maka kamu akan dibinasakan sebagaimana binasanya umat sebelum kamu”.

26. Sasaran kuantitatif telah dicapai.   Pencapaian cemerlang tersebut wajib dilengkapkan dengan kualiti.  UiTM bukan sebarang universiti.  UiTM ialah sebuah universiti yang dibangunkan berlatarbelakang agenda Melayu mempunyai visi dan misi khusus untuk Melayu.  Perlembagaannya menetapkan Canselor UiTM ialah Seri Paduka Baginda Yang di-Pertuan Agong.  Universiti ini wajib mencanai dan menggarap permata bangsa dengan sifat-sifat mulia insan Melayu berpaksikan Islam.  Graduan UiTM dan seluruh bangsa Melayu wajib merenung secara mendalam, kata-kata yang terkandung dalam ucapan Tan Siew Sin, ketika membahaskan usul penggubalan Perlembagaan, di Majlis Perundangan Persekutuan pada 10 Julai 1957:

“ … that the Malays are a proud and sensitive race.  They are also an intelligent race,”

27. Orang Melayu telah membuktikan kita bangsa yang sensitif.  Tetapi orang Melayu lebih wajib membuktikan bahawa kita adalah bangsa yang bangga, bangsa yang memiliki maruah – memiliki harga diri; bila berjanji, janji ditepati; bila berhutang, hutang dibayar; bila bertutur, tidak berdusta.  Jadikanlah kita bangsa yang bangga, bangsa yang memiliki maruah – memiliki harga diri dengan berazam untuk lebih bersedia memberi dan kurang meminta.  Bantulah bangsa kita, untuk dapat berbangga, bantulah bangsa kita agar memiliki maruah – memiliki harga diri, dengan menyerahkan amanah dan tanggungjawab kepada Melayu yang benar-benar kompeten, berwibawa, bertenaga, berkemahiran, berpengalaman, berpengetahuan dan berintegriti, daripada menyerahkan kepada orang perantaraan yang bersifat parasit, berniaga secara buluh kasap, untung tiada, modal pun lesap.  Muliakan bangsa Melayu, dengan memperkayakan sopan dan tertibnya, adat dan adabnya, hemah dan budinya.  Melayu itu hendaklah berimej orang yang dihormati, bukan orang yang ditakuti.  Buktikan bangsa Melayu bangsa yang pintar, dengan menghentikan perbuatan mengolah cipta pelbagai penglipur lara untuk dijadikan halwa telinga, atau berimej badut hingga dijadikan bahan ketawa.  Setiap kegagalan – setiap kesilapan,  yang dilakukan oleh anak Melayu, aibnya ditanggung oleh seluruh bangsa.

28. Graduan UiTM hendaklah memiliki identiti insan amanah – insan jujur, insan bertakwa, insan tawaduk dan insan berintegriti; insan yang insaf bahawa setiap perbuatan dan perilaku, niat dan kata, diawasi oleh dua Malaikat, Kiraman dan Katibin, yang berada di bahu kanan dan bahu kiri.  Graduan UiTM, hendaklah disemaikan dengan pegangan bahawa setiap tugas adalah amal, dilaksanakan atas nama ILAHI, tidak ada kesetiaan yang boleh mengatasi ketaatan terhadap ALLAH Subhanahu Wata’ala, selaras dengan ayat 162 dan 163, Surah Al-An’aam yang bermaksud:

“Sesungguhnya sembahyangku dan ibadatku, hidupku dan matiku, hanyalah untuk ALLAH, Tuhan yang mentadbir sekalian alam.  Tiadalah sekutu bagi Nya, dan dengan yang demikian sahaja aku diperintahkan, dan aku adalah orang Islam yang awal pertama berserah diri kepada ALLAH”.

29. Dato Onn Jaafar dan Tun Abdul Razak, gandingan dua tenaga yang telah mengasaskan idea di sebalik penubuhan UiTM telah lama meninggalkan kita.  Impian Dato’ Onn telah dijadikan realiti.  Harapan Tun Abdul Razak berjaya direalisasikan.  Akan sejahteralah roh kedua-dua Allahyarham itu melihat rekod kejayaan yang dicapai oleh UiTM pada hari ini, mengisi kelangsungan satu perjuangan bangsa.  Roh-roh mereka akan lebih sejahtera berehat di alam barzakh, jika seluruh warga UiTM dapat menghayati dan selanjutnya mengamalkan semangat pengorbanan tinggi yang telah dipamerkan oleh mereka berdua, terutama dari sudut integriti, menjunjung amanah, berbakti dan berkorban, demi kepentingan agama, bangsa dan tanah air.  Sempena acara sambutan enam puluh tahun usia UiTM, sama-samalah kita menghargai jasa dan khidmat bakti barisan pemimpin yang mempunyai wawasan dan bertanggungjawab di sebalik kejayaan UiTM, serta setiap seorang yang telah mencurahkan jasa bakti membangunkan UiTM.  Semoga ALLAH Subhanahu Wata’ala melimpahkan ganjaran rahmat kepada mereka semua, dan kepada mereka yang telah kembali ke Rahmatullah, kita pohonkan ihsan ILAHI untuk menempatkan roh mereka di kalangan roh para SOLIHIN. Al-Fatihah.

Dengan kalimah Bismillahi Rahmani Rahim, Beta merasmikan Konvensyen Nasional Penyatuan Bangsa 2016.

Sumber :

art I edutech I photography I scientist

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