Stranger anxiety emerges when your baby’s memory has taken a leap forward. Up to now, babies have pretty good “recognition memory.” That is, they could recognize things and faces and environments with which they were already familiar. Witness that huge, warm smile they save for when you magically reappear. But, what emerges around now is “retrieval memory” which is the ability to bring back to mind something that is not currently present. It is linked with a better sense of object permanence, when babies can find objects that are completely hidden. So, out of sight is no longer out of mind.
You may find it hard to believe, but you’ve made it halfway through your infant’s first year! In just six short months, your baby has started to learn how to communicate, eat solid foods, sit up without help, and get around independently.
Sixth-Month Baby Milestones: Growth | During the first few months of life, your baby was growing at a rate of about 1 ½ to 2 pounds a month. By now, she should have at least doubled her birth weight. At six months, your baby’s growth will slow to about 1 pound a month. Your baby’s height gain will also slow, to about a half-inch each month.
Sixth-Month Baby Milestones: Motor Skills | Your baby should be starting to sit alone by six months. To get ready, babies first prop themselves up with their hands, but over time they can start to let go and sit unsupported.
Your 6-month-old can probably roll from her back to her stomach and vice versa. Some babies can propel themselves around the floor using this rolling method. Or, they may creep forward or backward — sliding around on their tummies while pushing against the floor. You may notice your baby rise up on hands and knees and rock back and forth. But even if she does, she might not be ready to crawl for another month or two.
Sixth-Month Baby Milestones: Sleep | Most babies are sleeping six to eight hours at a stretch by six months. When babies at this age have trouble falling or staying asleep, some parents turn to a method developed by pediatrician Richard Ferber. The Ferber Method, as it is known, involves putting your baby into the crib while she’s still awake. If your baby cries, you wait for a progressively longer period of time each night before going in to provide comfort. This method works well for some families, but you may need to experiment with several different sleep methods before you find the one that works best for you.
Now that your baby can roll over independently, don’t be alarmed if you put her to sleep on her back and she wakes up on her tummy. The risk of SIDS is much lower at six months than it was in the first few months of life. Still, it’s a good idea to keep stuffed animals, pillows, and other soft items out of the crib for now.
Sixth-Month Baby Milestones: The Senses | You may notice that your baby’s eyes have changed from their birth color. Lighter-colored eyes may go through several shifts before settling on their final shade at about six months. If your baby still has blue eyes now, chances are they’ll stay that way permanently.
The fifth month is a time of transitions for your baby. You can expect him at this age to make his first attempts at real speech. She’s also gearing up to start crawling, which means you need to be ready for your little one’s new mobility.
Fifth-Month Baby Milestones: Motor Skills | Five-month-old babies can sit upright for longer periods of time. Your baby probably still needs to be propped up with a pillow or Boppy, but he may also be able to sit unsupported for a few seconds at a time.
Some 5-month-olds can start rolling over from their back to their tummy. Once your baby does roll over, you may notice him working her legs and rocking. She’s getting ready for crawling and scooting, which are just a couple of months away! But remember, when your baby is able to roll over, make sure you never leave him on a bed or other high surface where he can accidentally roll off and be injured.
Another thing you’ll notice at five months is that your baby’s grasp is getting stronger. She can pull objects closer and pick them up in the palm of his hand then move them adeptly from one hand to the other. Your baby may even be able to hold a bottle or sippy cup by herself.
Fifth-Month Baby Milestones: Sleep | Most babies sleep through the night by five months, but not all. To encourage your baby to get into a regular nighttime sleep rhythm, establish a bedtime routine. Start with a warm bath, followed by a few minutes of gentle rocking with a song and story, and your baby’s eyes are sure to start drooping.
Get into the habit of putting your baby into the crib drowsy, rather than fully asleep. This way, your baby will learn how to soothe himself to sleep rather than relying on you.
During the daytime, your baby will still need two naps — one in the morning and one after lunch. Try not to delay naps until your baby is already tired and cranky. Put your baby into the crib at the first signs of sleepiness. Nap time is a good time to plan your activities that your baby somehow keeps you from getting to.
Fifth-Month Baby Milestones: The Senses | Your 5-month-old’s vision is continuing to improve. At this point, babies still don’t have 20/20 vision, but they can see well at different distances and their eyes can focus together without crossing. At five months, your baby’s color perception has sharpened to the point where he can tell the difference between two shades of the same color. But babies at this age still prefer primary colors such as red, blue, and yellow.
Your 4-month-old is growing more and more alert by the day. Babies at this age love to express themselves through smiles, laughs, gurgles, and coos.
Fourth-Month Baby Milestones: Growth | By month four, your baby’s weight will likely have doubled from birth. If you’re concerned that your child isn’t eating well or isn’t gaining enough weight, talk to your pediatrician.
Fourth-Month Baby Milestones: Motor Skills | Your baby is becoming more dexterous and doing more with her hands. Her hands now work together to move a toy or shake a rattle. In fact, those hands will grab for just about anything within reach, including a stuffed animal, your hair, and any colorful or shiny object hanging nearby. You might want to remove any earrings or necklaces if you don’t want to experience a painful tug.
Anything your baby is able to pick up will likely end up in her mouth — tasting is one of the ways she explores her world. It’s crucial that you don’t leave small items lying around that your baby could choke on. Anything that can fit inside a toilet paper tube is too small to be within finger’s reach of your 4-month-old. By now, your baby’s head should no longer be wobbly. Four-month-olds have pretty good head control while sitting supported, and they can hold their head and chest upright while lying on their stomach during tummy time. They also can kick and push with their feet. Some babies have even figured out how to roll from tummy to back at this point.
Fourth-Month Baby Milestones: Sleep | By your baby’s fourth month, you both should be enjoying a full night’s sleep. At this age babies typically can sleep seven to eight hours in a row. Add in two naps, and your baby should be sleeping a total of 14 to 16 hours a day.
Fourth-Month Baby Milestones: The Senses| During the first three months, babies have a lot of trouble distinguishing color contrasts, which was why your newborn preferred bright colors and black-and-white objects. Now at four months, your baby’s vision has sharpened to about 20/40. Babies at this age can pick out more subtle color contrasts, such as a red button on a red shirt. They also can see across the room, although they still prefer looking at people close-up.
Your baby’s eyes should move together smoothly and follow objects and people around the room. If you notice crossed eyes or any other vision problems, be sure to mention them to your pediatrician. You also may notice that your baby’s eyes are starting to change color. Lighter-colored eyes may go through several changes before settling on their final shade at about six months.
Your 3-month-old is growing bigger and becoming more aware every day. By this age, your baby should be settling into a schedule, and giving you some much-needed rest!
Third Month Baby Milestones: Motor Skills | Those innate reflexes — such as the startle reflex — that your baby displayed during the first couple of months should be fading or gone by now. You’ve probably also noticed that your baby’s neck strength is improving. When you hold your baby upright, you should see very little or even no head wobbling. Three-month-old babies also should have enough upper-body strength to support their head and chest with their arms while lying on their stomach and enough lower body strength to stretch out their legs and kick. As you watch your baby, you should see some early signs of hand-eye coordination. Your baby’s hands can open and shut, come together, swipe at colorful dangling toys, briefly grab a toy or rattle, and go straight into the mouth.
Third Month Baby Milestones: Sleep | Your 3-month-old’s nervous system is maturing, and his stomach can accommodate more milk or formula. Those changes should allow your baby to sleep for a stretch of six or seven hours at a time, which translates into nearly a long awaited full night of sleep for you. If your baby does wake up in the middle of the night, wait about 30 seconds before heading into the nursery. Sometimes, babies will cry for a few seconds and then go back to sleep. When you rush in at the first sound of fussing, your baby won’t learn how to fall back asleep on his own.
When the cries don’t stop and you do need to go into your baby’s room in the middle of the night, stick to the essentials. Feeding and changing should be done in the dark, if possible, and then it’s right back into the crib. Eventually, your baby will get the idea that nighttime is for sleeping only. Your baby’s daytime sleep schedule should also become more routine by now. Most 3-month-old babies take two or three hour-and-a-half or 2-hour naps each day.
Third Month Baby Milestones: The Senses |Your 3-month-old’s hearing and vision are improving. Babies this age turn their heads and smile at the sound of their parents’ voices, and they love listening to all kinds of music. Your baby will still prefer to look at brightly colored toys. That’s because sharp contrasts are easier to see. Faces are absolutely fascinating to 3-month-old babies. Look at your baby and he will stare back into your eyes. Your infant will also gaze intently at his own reflection in a crib mirror.
You’ve gotten past the newborn phase, and now, in the second month, you’re starting to get a sense of your baby’s personality. You’re also learning what makes your 2-month-old tick — from likes and dislikes, to crying triggers, which at this age are still pretty basic — hunger, sleepiness, and dirty diapers.
Second Month Baby Milestones: Motor Skills | Two-month-old babies are gaining more control over their bodies. That means they can hold their head a little steadier while lying on their tummies or being supported upright. In the second month of life, babies continue to have a strong sucking reflex. You may notice your baby likes to suck on a fist or a few fingers. This is one of the best ways babies have of comforting themselves. At 2 months, your baby doesn’t yet have the coordination to play with toys. But your baby may bat at a colorful object hanging in front of her. Your baby may even briefly hold a toy that you place in one of her hands.
Second Month Baby Milestones: Sleep | Your baby’s sleep patterns are evolving from newborn sleep. But at two months, they still aren’t fully established. At this age, babies sleep 15 to 16 hours a day. But those hours are sporadic, and they usually aren’t ready to sleep through the night. This is especially true for breastfed babies, who generally wake up to eat every three hours or so. Hang in there for just a few more weeks and you’ll be able to get some much-needed rest. You may even be able to get to a full night’s sleep earlier by helping your baby learn how to fall asleep on her own. Do this by putting your baby into the crib when she’s drowsy rather than fast asleep. All babies need to be put to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). You can provide plenty of tummy time when your baby is awake and supervised. Also, remove all soft objects from your baby’s crib, including pillows, blankets, stuffed animals, and soft bumpers.
Second Month Baby Milestones: The Senses | At two months, babies can see objects — and people — from up to 18 inches away. That means you still need to get pretty close, but your baby will be able to see your face pretty well while feeding. Your baby should also be able to follow your movements when you walk close by. Baby’s hearing is improving too. Your 2-month-old will especially enjoy listening to the sound of your voice.
A Case Study of Child’s Drawing as Inspiration to Adult Art
Children art begins at the infant stage when marks and symbols are created. These marks are children’s earliest cognitive and psychomotor responses to the visual world. Children’s drawing is a reflection of `window to the mind`, a window which the development of perception, thought and emotion can all be observed (Light & Barnes, 2003). The art of children is different from that of the adults and according to Piaget (1955) (as stated by Light & Barnes, 2003) children art are schematic in nature. The uniqueness of children art ignited the production of this study in which it attempted to look at how early drawings of a talented three-year old girl became inspiration to adult art. Forty-two drawings produced by this little girl, most of them were from scribbling to schematic stages, were collected and analyzed utilizing Piaget`s three stages of cognitive development: scheme, assimilation and accommodation. These drawings were later compiled according to its distinct stage and group. Most of the drawings produced were symbolisms and abstraction of alphabetical characters as well as words to represent their images. They become major subject of the research and are used as main reference in producing artwork. Images in the child’s drawings inspired ideas and are composed in abstractive styles in the form of thirteen paintings produced by students undertaking Bachelor Degree in Art and Design Education, Faculty of Education, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM). These paintings were later exhibited at Shah Alam Gallery for public viewing.
Written by Badrul Isa, Prof.Dr.Shukor & Syamsul Nor Azlan Mohamad | Presented at National Institute of Education (NIE) Singapore