Topic 0008: Epistemology Stance

Epistemology as a branch of philosophy deals with the sources of knowledge. Specifically, epistemology is concerned with possibilities, nature, sources and limitations of knowledge in the field of study. Alternatively, epistemology can be branded as the study of the criteria by which the researcher classifies what does and does not constitute the knowledge.[1]

In research philosophy there are many different sources of knowledge. Sources of knowledge related to business research in particular can be divided into the following four categories:

  1. Intuitive knowledge is based on intuition, faith, beliefs etc. Human feelings plays greater role in intuitive knowledge compared to reliance on facts.
  2. Authoritarian knowledge relies on information that has been obtained from books, research papers, experts, supreme powers etc.
  3. Logical knowledge is a creation of new knowledge through the application of logical reasoning.
  4. Empirical knowledge relies on objective facts that have been established and can be demonstrated.

Research process may integrate all of these sources of knowledge within a single study. For example, intuitive knowledge can be used in order to select a specific problem to be explored within a selected research area, whereas authoritative knowledge is gained during the process of literature review. Moreover, logical knowledge is generated as a result of analysing primary data findings, and conclusions of the research can be perceived as empirical knowledge.

Epistemology has many branches and include essentialism, historical perspective, perennialsm, progressivism, empiricism, idealism, rationalism, constructivism and others. Empiricism and rationalism can be specified as the two major constructing debates within the field of epistemological study that relates to business studies. Empiricism accepts personal experiences associated with observation, feelings and senses as a valid source of knowledge, whereas according to rationalism relies on empirical findings gained through valid and reliable measures as a source of knowledge.

The table below describes important aspects of epistemologies of the main research philosophies related to business research:

Research philosophy

Epistemology: the researcher’s view regarding what constitutes acceptable knowledge


Either or both observable phenomena and subjective meanings can provide acceptable knowledge dependent upon the research question. Focus on practical applied research, integrating different perspectives to help interpret the data


Only observable phenomena can provide credible data, facts. Focus on causality and law-like generalisations, reducing phenomena to simplest elements


Observable phenomena provide credible data, facts. Insufficient data means inaccuracies in sensations (direct realism). Alternatively, phenomena create sensations which are open to misinterpretation (critical realism). Focus on explaining within a context or contexts


Subjective meanings and social phenomena.Focus upon the details of situation, a reality behind these details, subjective meanings motivating actions

Epistemology of popular research philosophies [2]

Source taken from:

  1. Hallebone, E. & Priest, J. (2009) “Business and Management Research: Paradigms and Practices” Palgrave Macmillan
  2. Table adapted from Saunders, M., Lewis, P. & Thornhill, A. (2012) “Research Methods for Business Students” 6th edition, Pearson Education Limited

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